Vaccination of Fish

The process of stimulating a protective immune response in fish against pathogenic microorganisms by exposing them to non-pathogenic forms or components of microorganisms is referred to as vaccination.

Vaccines are not the same as antibiotics and generally will not be effective for stopping a disease outbreak once it has begun. Vaccines are used to prevent a specific disease outbreak from occurring and are not therapy.

Its efficiency exists for a longer duration with one or more treatments. The vaccine used should be safe and should not cause toxicity to fish.

Do fish need vaccination?

Yes, fish need vaccination and it is an easy, effective, and preventive method of protecting fish from diseases. There are many types of fish vaccines but relatively few types are available for commercial use as Fully licensed vaccines.

List of Fish Vaccines

Koi herpes virus Koi carp koi herpes virus (KHV) disease
Vibrio salmonicida Bacterin Salmonids Vibriosis
Edwardsiella ictaluri Bacterin Catfish Enteric Septicaemia
Biofilm and free-cell vaccines of Aeromonas hydrophila Indian major carps Dropsy

What is the role of vaccination?

Vaccination mimics infection and so it provides immunity without the fish succumbing to the disease. Thus the fish becomes resistant to the disease before it becomes infected and so, if later on the fish is exposed to the infection, it will usually not show any signs or any minor signs of illness.

Modes of Vaccination in Fish

There are 3 major modes for vaccines for Fish:-

Oral Vaccination

These vaccines are either mixed with the feed. Oral vaccination has the advantage that it is a very easy vaccine administration method with no stress to the fish. oral vaccines have very short-term stability once mixed with the feed.

Immersion Vaccination

In Immersion vaccines, there are 2 application methods: dip and bath. In dip vaccination, fish are immersed for a very short duration, usually 30 seconds in a highly concentrated vaccine solution. With both vaccines, fish are exposed for a longer period, usually one to several hours, in a lower concentration of vaccine.

Injection Vaccination

These vaccines have a number of major advantages that make them a preferred vaccination method. Injection vaccination provides for a long duration of protection for over a year. It allows for multiple antigens to be combined in a single vaccine.

Benefits of Vaccination

  • Fish vaccination has become an increasingly important part of aquaculture.
  • This has increased the overall survival and health of fish.
  • They killed or weakened versions of the disease-causing germs.
  • Reducing the risk of diseases spreading among others.
  • Vaccines give immunity to a disease without getting sick first.